Index for Living Pathways: Meditations on sustainable cultures and cosmologies in Asia

Index

A

academicself 25, 113

Ainu 25, 67

American Dream: 35, 41

the underside of 37, 41–43, 59, 132

Americanisation: 41

of the world 37, 41

the harms of 43–45

Americanism: 35

unsustainability of 36

in relation to Asia 41–45 (Also see ‘Asia’)

animism 8

Anwar Fazal 67

Asia:

author’s study of xvii, 1, 29–31, 107, 113

Asian scholarship 53–55, 109

cosmologies within 73–75, 87, 99 (Also see ‘cosmology’)

cultures of 11, 17

development in 19–21, 47, 63, 103

generational issues of 31, 35

future of 27, 51

identity of 33–35, 95,101

in relation to consumption 45, 49, 59

marginalisation of 61, 75

pasts of 53

reformation of 119

spiritual core of 75

spiritual traditions of 37, 78, 87, 91–93, 109 (Also see ‘spirituality’)

suggestions for 113–115

sustainable pathways of 25, 49, 67, 79–81 (Also see ‘sustainability’)

urbanisation of 9, 29, 41, 45 (Also see ‘urbanism’)

unsustainable practices of 47, 61, 71, 130

Western impact on 41-43, 57, 59, 101–103 (Also see ‘American Dream’)

Asian College of Journalism 5

Asian Public Intellectuals: 1

API fellows 75, 95

author’s experience with 9–10, 67

Ateneo de Manila University 67

 

B

balance: 79, 103

as a challenge in development 126

as a spiritual principle 83, 91

in Balinese tradition 87, 89

in Islamic tradition 95

necessity of 31, 95

Bali:

author’s travels to 11, 67, 75

tourism of 73

Balinese: 91

temples of 89 (Also see ‘pura’ and ‘candi bentar’)

traditions of 67, 73, 75, 87

being: 13, 51, 95

and mainstream culture 27

as opposed to ‘having’ 7, 10, 25, 87, 121

complications of 15, 77

fellow beings 13, 49, 121

indigenous notions of 99

inter-being 13, 15, 25, 73, 87, 91–95, 133 (Also see ‘Buddhism’)

levels of 83

sustainability and 63, 121

transcendental Being 79

transformation of 91

biocentric egalitarianism 67

Brundtland Commission: xvii, 81

Brundtland Report 5, 87 (Also see ‘“Our Common Future”’)

Buddhism: 79, 95

and sustainability 95

as related to inter-being 93–95 (Also see ‘inter-being’)

Buddhist culture in Thailand 27, 75

Buddhist methodology 25

Buddhist response to urbanism 87

Zen Buddhism 29

 

C

candibentar 89–91

capitalism: 5–7, 120

capital-centric discourse 63, 133

capitalist development 1–5, 19, 21, 63, 81

capitalistic transformation of Asia 43

complications of 23, 51

corporate capitalism 33–35

in relation to the American Dream 41 (Also see ‘American Dream’)

spatial-discursive system of contemporary global capitalism 43

Catholicism:

reorientation of 37, 77

Catholic interviewees 27, 33

Catholic response to urbanism 87

Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University 45

child abuse 47

colonialism: 51

colonial mentality 37

consequences of 51–53, 57

in relation to catholicism 77 (Also see ‘Ca-tholicism’)

in relation to commodity cultures 21

compassion:

and connectedness 93

as a feature of spirituality 11, 79

commodification of 21

crisis of 21, 59, 103

in relation to business 19

in relation to sustainability 25, 83

consumerism:

consumer emporiums 27

consumer goods 87

consumer movement 1–5

consumer-driven culture 25, 61

Consumerist Utopia 13, 21

consumers 3, 131–132

in relation to Americanism 35, 41(Also see ‘Americanism’)

Consumers International 5–9

consumption:

and transubstantiation 37

and unsustainability 19–21, 27–31, 43–45, 63, 69

circularity of consumption 99

commodities and 55

consumption orientation 97

in indigenous communities 95, 99

indiscriminate consumption 5, 7, 132

nutrition and 59 (Also see ‘hunger’)

sustainable consumption 7

corporate culture:

corporate agenda 19

corporate America 43, 59

corporate capitalism 33, 35

corporate self-image 37

corporate social responsibility 21, 124, 133

corporations 41

cosmology: 17, 45

author’s definition of 49

cosmological reorientation 51

cosmology of sustainability 11–15, 55, 73–75, 83–87, 91–93, 99, 101, 107, 115

mechanistic cosmology 51

new cosmology 55

unsustainable cosmologies 61, 75, 101

within indigenous cultures 63, 113, 133

cosmovision 73

culture: 25, 31–33, 37

American culture 35, 41–45 (Also see ‘Americanism’)

andglobalisation 103, 121

and spirituality 79, 81, 87, 107

andsustainabile development 3, 9–11, 67, 81

and sustainability 9, 55, 63, 89, 123–124, 126

andurbanisation 9, 31 (Also see ‘urban- ism’)

Asian cultures xvii, 11, 17, 25–29, 43, 49, 57 (Also see ‘Asia’)

coloniser culture 37 (Also see ‘colonial- ism’)

commodity/commercial culture 21, 27, 41, 49, 61, 73, 83, 120, 125

crisis of 13, 21, 33, 45, 132–133

cultural alloy 37

cultural bomb 43

cultural imperialism/hegemony 41, 57, 75 (Also see ‘hegemony’)

cultural practices 29, 89

entertainment culture 27

fast-food culture 91

indigenous culture 37, 49, 53–55, 67–79, 91–95, 113, 133

loss of 31–33

marginalisation of 73

multiculturalism 31

nationalistic culture 71–73

present-day culture 13, 91, 122–123

touristic culture 73, 115

 

D

de Mesa, José 37

dematerialisation:

and eco-friendliness 71

and sustainability 124–125, 127 (Also see ‘growth’)

non-materialism 11, 25, 69–71, 83

of the economy 69

Diabetes 45

DINKY 47

 

E

Earth Summit 61

ecology: 122–123

and indigenous peoples 73

and spirituality 79, 83

and sustainability 9, 31, 55, 71–73, 91, 107, 124, 132 (Also see ‘sustainability’)

crisis of 21, 103, 132–133

ecological consciousness 120–121

ecological footprint 27, 69, 103

ecological impacts 63

ecological movement 5

future of 25, 103

philosophical ecology 49

ecosystem 49

Empire of Now 31, 95–97

Engaged Buddhism and Catholicism 83

entertainment 21–23, 27

environment:

and businesses 21

and indigenous cultures 73

and limits 67

and spirituality 95

and sustainability 29, 33, 49, 61, 71, 107, 124, 126

and sustainable development 9, 63, 81, 123

and the media 119

and urbanism 31, 41

effects of consumption upon 5, 69

environmental cost 43

environmental degradation 1–3, 19–21, 133

problems with 9, 55, 81, 120–121

socialistic 7

environmentalism 3, 120–121

 

F

Fernandez, Josie 5

 

G

GDP 55, 103

gimong 73, 99

Gross National Happiness 101–103

growth: (Also see ‘dematerialisation’)

and sustainability 25

‘de-growth’ development 13

economic 13, 55, 67, 75, 81, 131

growth-oriented development 19–21, 33, 47, 63, 69, 79–83, 101

growth-related activity 126

material growth 19, 41

‘no-growth’ development 103

pro-capitalist market growth model 63

pro-growth 61, 91

guardians 73, 91

 

H

Happy Planet Index 103

hedonism: 21–23, 75, 98

hegemony:

and development 57, 75

and the media 125–127

and urbanism 29

Buddhist and Catholic response to 83

Gramscian hegemony 57

hegemonic anthropocentrism 49

in relation to Americanism 41, 113–115

Henanga 25, 67, 91

Hiroshima 41, 67

historical materialism 3–5, 9, 13

human beings: 27, 122

as part of a triadic relationship xix, 87 (Also see ‘triadic relationship’)

in relation to the material world xvii

with nature and environment 7, 19, 27, 49, 63, 95

hunger 57–61

hurry: 27–31

‘hurry-stopper’ 29

 

I

Ifugao Province 11, 75

Ikuta, Masato 71

inayan 69, 73, 89 (Also see ‘lawa’)

indigenous peoples: 55, 73, 91, 95

and consumption 7, 95, 99

and modern society 103, 113–115, 133

and spirituality 79

and sustainability 25, 33, 69, 87, 107–109, 124

author’s interactions with 11, 49, 75

cosmologies of xix, 11–13, 73, 87, 101

critique of 71

philosophies of 53–55, 69, 91–93, 99

Indigenous Peoples’ International Centre for Policy Research and Education (Tebtebba) 69, 87

individualism 91

Institute of Hindu Dharma 89

inter-being: 13, 91

and Buddhism 25, 95

and sustainable cultures 93, 133

in relation to globalisation 73

interconnectedness: 33, 87

and Buddhism 95 (Also see ‘Buddhism’)

and spirituality 11, 15, 83, 93

and the future 55

in relation to business 19, 133

Ishikawa International Cooperation Research Centre (IICRC) 9

 

J

Japanese Zen garden 29, 75

Jawaharlal Nehru University 3

justice: 23–25

crisis of 1, 21

in Islam 95

practice of 103, 133

social justice 59

 

K

kammic merit 49

Kanazawa Approach to Culture in the Sustainability of Cities 9, 13

Kankanaey 69, 89–91

kapwa 73, 93–95

Karen: 31, 75, 87

beliefs of 91

rituals of 49

Khoo Salma Nasution 9

Kumar, Sashi 5

Kyoto 45–47, 61, 71

 

L

Lanna 87

lawa 69, 89 (Also see ‘inayan’)

life worlds 21

limits:

and balance 31, 67–69, 73, 83, 89, 95, 103

in the Zen garden 29 (Also see ‘Japanese Zen garden’)

on development 81

perceived lack of 23, 31, 45, 55, 132

Lumiwes, Olowan 69

 

M

Made Titib 87

malnutrition (See ‘hunger’)

materialism: 33, 75

and consumption 21, 61, 99

and development 13

Media: 21, 23, 57, 115, 119–127, 129–130, 133

and Americanism 43 (Also see ‘American-isation’)

and Japan 47

author’s experience with 1, 5

meditation: 23, 49

and ashrams 11, 29

and self-awareness 67, 83

as part of the ‘fourth pillar’ 19

author’s experience with 5, 25, 29, 95

military:

of America 35–37, 41

intervention of 57

of Japan 71

of the West 101

Millennium Development Goals 57

mindfulness: 23, 27, 33, 43, 69

and Buddhism 25, 95 (Also see ‘Buddhism’)

and interconnectedness 55, 83, 91, 133

and spirituality 11–15

and sustainability 29, 73

struggles of 71

Mud House Movement 29, 71

 

N

Nara 75

nationalism: (Also see ‘military’)

and Japan 43, 71, 91

nationalistic culture 73

negative consequences of 35, 71

nature: 33, 47–49, 81, 95, 120–123

and extinction 19

and indigenous peoples 67–69, 73, 91, 95

and sustainable development 63 (Also see ‘sustainable development’)

destruction of 7, 51, 120, 133

natural world xix, 49, 73, 83–87

protection of 25, 99

returning to 29, 33

Nippon Foundation 1, 11 (Also see ‘Asian Public Intellectuals’)

 

O

organic intellectuals 33

“Our Common Future” 19, 81

 

P

personhood: 3, 11, 93–95

author’s personal development 7–11, 87

personal life 27, 81

personal needs 69

shared personhood 73 (Also see ‘kapwa’)

Press Trust of India 5

pura 89

 

 

R

Ramakrishna, Sundari xix

RatnaRana 9

religion: 23–25, 93

and spirituality (see ‘spirituality’)

in Bali 75, 89 (Also see ‘Bali’)

institutionalised religion 77

‘Cosmic Religion’ 75–77, 83

and atheism 79

Research and Training Centre for Religio-Cultural Community 33, 109

re-situating the human 49

resources:

and consumption 97

and sustainability 67–69, 73, 99, 124

common property resource 73 (Also see ‘gimong’)

cultural resources 27

educational resources 55, 115

financial resources 19

natural resources xvii, 45, 49

resource depletion 7, 19, 51, 63, 95, 120,126, 132

‘Unlimited Resources’ 31

responsibility: 27, 37, 73

corporate social responsibility 21

media responsibility 23, 126–127

Right Livelihood Award 67, 75

 

S

Sacred: 75, 91

and sustainability 109

as part of a triadic relationship 85 (Also see ‘Triadic Relationship’)

incosmovision 73 (Also see ‘cosmovision’)

in Islam 95

sacred portal 89 (Also see ‘candibentar’)

sacred spaces 75, 91

sacredness of all things 87–91

spiritual sacredness 99, 107

Sagada 69

samsara 49

Shintoists 29, 75, 91

Sivaraksa, Sulak 75

social Darwinism 41

speed of life: 47

‘blind’ speed 29

Spirit:

American spirit 35–37

andcosmovision 73

of sustainability 2 ( Also see ‘urbanism’)

spirits 69, 79, 87, 91

the human spirit 3–5, 130

Spirituality: 13,17–19, 57, 83, 107, 113

and cosmology 55

and religion 11, 67, 79, 121

and the environment 121

as a ‘fourth pillar’ 19

crisis of 21, 87

spiritual futures 23

spiritual world xix, 73, 85–87

spiritually-engaged sustainability 11, 13, 101

sustainability:

crisis of 21, 25, 81, 103, 109, 132

strong sustainability 63, 67, 81

sustainable futures 23–25, 33, 55, 75, 95, 99, 115, 126

sustainable pasts 55

weak sustainability 63, 67

sustainable development xvii, 1, 5–13, 61–63, 67, 75, 81, 87, 91, 101–103, 107, 119–127

 

T

Tanaka, Koji 45

Thammasat University, Bangkok 27

theology 37 (Also see ‘religion’)

Thianvihan, Niphot 33, 37, 77, 109

ThichNhatHanh 83, 93

Thirakanont, Anucha 27

Thoreau, Henry David 33–35

thudong monks 49

Tokyo Disneyland 41–43

torii 91

touristic culture 73, 115

Tri Hita Karana 73, 87

triadic relationship 85–89

triple bottom line 19–21, 99, 133 (Also see ‘sustainable development’)

 

U

Udayana University 87

United Nations: 57, 61, 79 133

and the Brundtland Commission 5, 19, 81(Also see ‘Brundtland Commission)

United Nations University 9

urbanism: 27

and consumerism 25, 41, 87

dangers of 27–31, 49

in capitalist societies 7 (Also see ‘capitalism’)

of Japan 47, 91

of Thailand 83

urbanisation 9, 33, 45, 51

 

V

virtue of selfishness 59

Visalo, Paisal 75, 95

 

W

Waqf 95

WayanRedig 87–89

the West: xvii, 23, 37, 93

and sustainable development 63, 101–103, 107, 120

Asia’s romance with 35

commodity culture of 21, 49

cultural imperialism of 41, 53–55, 113 (Also see ‘hegemony’)

‘West is Best’ policy 35

Western knowledge 51, 55

versus the East 61

worldview: 51, 126

and ‘world-feel’ 49, 55

anthropocentric worldview 63

hegemonic worldview 57

materialistic worldview 7, 13

mechanistic worldview 55

of indigenous peoples 91, 107 (Also see ‘indigenous peoples’)

 

Z

Zialcita, Fernando 67–69